Glossary

narcolepsy - a neurological sleep disorder

Neurology

neuron

hypothalamus

amygdala

orexin/hypocretin - a neurotransmitter which acts as a regulator for the sleep/wake and rem/nrem cycles. It prevents the rapid switch from one sleep state to another and promotes the even progression of the stages of sleep, in narcolepsy this otherwise predictable pattern is disrupted by the lack of orexin/hypocretin.

Autoimmune disease 

autoimmune disease - a disease characterized by the immune system improperly attacking healthy cells or systems in the body

HLA - human leukocyte antigens, used to determine "tissue types" or compatibility

HLA antigens - antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.

HLA-D antigens - human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.

HLA-DQ antigens - a group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.